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Fashion to Furnishings
Capturing Customers
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Catalogues (1880-1975)
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Index | Part 1 | Part 2

Part 2: Mail Order — Related Topics

Advertising/Marketing/Consumption | Hockey | Mail Order — General | Mail-order Houses | Oriental Carpets | Postal Service | Retail and Department Stores | Women's Fashion | Writing


Secondary Sources


Bella, Leslie. The Christmas Imperative. Halifax: Fernwood Publishing, ca 1992, 252 pp.

Breton, Philippe and Serge Proulx. "Publicité, communication et consommation." In L'explosion de la communication: La naissance d'une nouvelle idéologie. Montréal: Boréal, 1993, pp. 103-118.

Côté, Luc and Jean-Guy Daigle. Publicité de masse et masse publicitaire. Ottawa: University of Ottawa Press, 1999, 362 pp.

Cross, Gary, An All-Consuming Century: Why Commercialism Won in Modern America. New York: Columbia University Press, 2000, 320 pp.

Cuandiff, E. W. "Evolution of Retailing Institutions across Cultures." In Historical Perspectives in Marketing, edited by T. Nevett and R. A. Fullerton. Lexington: np, 1988.

Ewen, Stuart. Consciences sous influence: Publicité et genèse de la société de consommation. Ca 1970. Reprint, Paris: Aubier-Montaigne, 1983, 240 pp.

Lapointe, Roger. Regard sur la société de consommation. Montréal: Éditions Fides, 1973, 40 pp.

Leach, William. Land of Desire Merchants, Power, and the Rise of a New American Culture. New York: Pantheon Books, 1993, 510 pp.

Leach, William. "Transformation in a Culture of Consumption: Women and Department Stores, 1890-1925." Journal of American History, 71 (September 1984): 319-342.

Lears, T. J. J. "From Salvation to Self-Realization." In Culture and Consumption, edited by R. W. Fox and T. J. J. Lears. New York: np, 1983.

Leiss, William, Stephen Kline, and Sut Jhally. Social Communication in Advertising: Persons, Products, and Images of Well-Being. Toronto: Methuen, 1986, 327 pp.

Linteau, Paul-André, René Durocher, Jean-Claude Robert, and François Ricard. Histoire du Québec contemporain: Le Québec depuis 1930. Montréal: Boréal, 1986.

Marchand, Roland. Advertising the American Dream. Berkeley: University of California Press, 1985, 448 pp.

Monod, David. L. Store Wars: Shopkeepers and the Culture of Mass Marketing, 1890-1939. Toronto: University of Toronto Press, 1996, 438 pp.

Ouellet, Marc. "La clé du succès: Le discours publicitaire au Québec du tournant du siècle à la crise." MA thesis, Québec: Université Laval, 1993.

Rudin, Ronald. "Alphonse Desjardins et le marketing des caisses populaires, 1900-1920." In La culture inventée: Les stratégies culturelles aux 19e et
20e siècles
, edited by Pierre Lanthier and Guildo Rousseau. Québec: IQRC, 1992. pp. 173-186.

Schroeder, Fred E. "Semi-annual Installment on the American Dream: The Wishbook as Popular Icon." In Icons of Popular Culture, edited by Marshal Fishwick. Bowling Green, Ohio: Bowling Green University Press, 1970,
pp. 73-86.

Schroeder, Fred E. "The Wishbook as Popular Icon." In Outlaw Aesthetics: Art and the Public Mind. Bowling Green, Ohio: Bowling Green University Press, 1977, pp. 50-61.

Stewart, Marilyn. The Canadian Direct Marketing Handbook. Toronto: McGraw-Hill Ryerson, 1992.

Strasser, Susan. Satisfaction Guaranteed: The Making of the American Mass Market. Washington: Smithsonian Institution Press, 1989, 339 pp.

Williams, Rosalind. Dream Worlds: Mass Consumption in Late Nineteenth-Century France. Berkeley: University of California Press, 1982, 451 pp.


Secondary Sources


FOWLES, Jib. "Mass Media and the Star System." In Communication in History. Technology, Culture, Society, edited by D. Crowley and P. Heyer. White Plains, N.Y.: Longman, 1995, pp. 207-214.

Kidd, Bruce. The Struggle for Canadian Sport. Toronto: University of Toronto Press, 1996.

McFarlane, Brian. The Lively World of Hockey: A History of the National Hockey League, 1917-1968. Toronto: Signet Books, 1968, 204 pp.

Saint-Pierre, Jacques. "Le hockey et le sport professionnel dans les catalogues à l'époque de leur âge d'or, 1880-1960." Hull: Canadian Postal Museum, 2001.

Mail Order — General

Primary Sources


Libraries of McGill University, Rare Books and Special Collections, Montréal. The following catalogues are among the Libraries' holdings: S. Carsley Company, Spring and Summer 1899; W. H. Scroggie Limited, Spring and Summer 1905; Goodwin's Limited, Fall and Winter 1911-1912.

Library and Archives Canada, Ottawa.

  • Committee on Price Spreads. Proceedings, Royal Commission on Price Spreads and Mass Buying, vol. 3, 1934.
  • Royal Commission on Price Spreads. Report of the Royal Commission on Price Spreads. Ottawa: J. O. Patenaude, 1935. Appendices contain information on each of the department stores and their catalogue divisions.
  • RG13, Justice, Series A-2, vol. 368, file 1932-740, "Post Office Department - Proposed Evasion of Higher Parcel Post Rates by Mail-order Houses."
Secondary Sources


Adburgham, Alison. Victorian Shopping: Harrods 1895 Catalogue. Devon, England: David and Charles, 1972, Introduction.

Bates, Christina. "Prescription and Practice: A Comparison of Child-care Manuals, Fashion Journals, and Mail-order Catalogues on the Subject of Children's Dress, 1875-1900." MA thesis, Williamsburg (Virginia): College of William and Mary, 1989.

Beck, Evelyn. "Catalogs." In Handbook of American Popular Culture, edited by Thomas Inge. New York: Greenwood Press, 1989.

Brubach, Holly. "Mail-order America." The New York Times, November 21, 1993, pp. 54-70.

"Catalogues Are Big Business." The Postmark, May 1962, pp. 6-9.

Dickinson, R.A. Buyer Decision Making. Institute of Business and Mail-order Catalogues: Research Tools for Material History Economic Research. Berkeley: np, 1967, 108 pp.

Hayward, Ann. "Mail-order Catalogues: Research Tools for Material History." Alberta Museums Review 12, no. 2 (1987): 9-11.

Lawrence, Margaret. "The Catalogue Best Seller." Winnipeg Free Press, July 13, 1970.

Lessard, Michel. "De l'utilité des catalogues commerciaux en ethnohistoire du Québec." Les Cahiers des Dix, 49 (1994): 213-251.

Mott, F. L. "The Mail Order Journal." In A History of American Magazines, vol. 4 (1885-1905). Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 1957, pp. 64-68.

Provencher, Jean. "Maudit catalogue." Le MacLean, October 1973.

Rousseau, Guildo. "La santé par correspondance: Un mode de mise en marché des médicaments brevetés au début du siècle." Histoire sociale, 28, no. 55 (May 1995): 1-25.

Rumball, Michael Keith. "A Study of the Shopping Behaviour of Known Users of Department Store Catalogues." MA thesis, Edmonton: University of Alberta, 1973, 163 pp.

Schlereth, Thomas J. "Mail-order Catalogs as Resources in Material Culture Studies." In Material Culture Studies in America, edited by T. J. Schlereth. Nashville, Tenn.: American Association for State and Local History, 1982,
pp. 48-65.

Schlereth, Thomas. J. "Country Stores, Country Fairs, and Mail-order Catalogues: Consumption in Rural America." In Consuming Visions: Accumulation and Display of Goods in America, 1880-1920, edited by
S. J. Bronner. New York: W. W. Norton and Co. and Henry Francis Du Pont Winterthur Museum, 1989, pp. 339-375.

Terral Jeans, Marylu. "Restoring a Mail-order Landmark." Americana, 9, no. 2.

Willis, John . "Le catalogue d'hier et le marketing d'aujourd'hui." Cap-aux-Diamants, no. 79 (Summer 2002): 45.

Mail-order Houses

Secondary Sources


Garvin, James. "Mail-order House Plans and American Victorian Architecture." Winterthur Portfolio 16 (Winter 1981): 309-334.

Gowans, Alan. The Comfortable House: North American Suburban Architecture 1890-1930. Cambridge: MIT Press, 1986, 246 pp.

Harvey, Thomas. "Mail-order Architecture in the Twenties." Landscape, 25,
no. 3 (1981): 9.

Henry, Les. Catalogue Houses: Eaton's and Others. Saskatoon: Henry Perspectives, 2000, 138 pp.

Mills, G. E. (Ted) and D. W. Holdsworth. The BC Mills Prefabricated System: The Emergence of Ready-built Buildings in Western Canada. Canadian Historic Sites, Occasional Papers in Archaeology and History, no. 14. Ottawa: National Historic Sites Service, National and Historic Parks Branch, Department of Indian Affairs and Northern Development, 1975, pp. 127-169.

Mills, G. E. (Ted). Buying Wood and Building Farms: Marketing Lumber and Farm Building Designs on the Canadian Prairies, 1880 to 1920. Ottawa: Environment Canada, Parks Canada and National Historic Sites, 1991, 199 pp.

Schweitzer, Robert and Michael W. R. Davis. America's Favorite Homes: Mail-order Catalogs as a Guide to Popular Early 20th-Century Houses. Detroit: Wayne State University, 1990, 261 pp.

Snyder, Tim. "The Sears Pre-cut: A Mail-order House for Everyone." Fine Homebuilding, no. 28 (August-September 1985).

Stevenson, Katherine Cole and H. Ward Jandl. Houses by Mail: A Guide to Houses from Sears, Roebuck and Company. Washington: The Preservation Press, 1986, 365 pp.

Watson, Gordon. "Supreme Value: Household Catalogues as Sources for Social Historians." Social History Curators Group Journal, 17 (1989-90): 11-15.

Oriental Carpets

Secondary Sources


Babayan, Levon. The Romance of the Oriental Rug. Toronto: Babayan's Ltd., 1925, 80 pp.

Coxon, Herbert. Oriental Carpets: How They Are Made and Conveyed to Europe with a Narrative of a Journey to the East in Search of Them. London: T. Fisher Unwin, 1884, 75 pp.

Ellwanger, William De Lancy. The Oriental Rug: A Monograph. New York: Dobb, Mead and Company, 1903, 154 pp.

Gurdji, V. Oriental Rug Weaving. New York: F. Tennyson Neely Company, 1901, 93 pp.

Holt, Rosa Belle. Oriental and Occidental Rugs Antique and Modern. Garden City: Garden City Publishing Company, 1937, 208 pp.

Langton, Mary Beach. How to Know Oriental Rugs: A Handbook. New York: D. Appleton and Company, 1904, 244 pp.

Lewis, G. Griffin. The Practical Book of Oriental Rugs. New York: J. B. Lippincott Company, 1945.

Mumford, John Kimberly. Oriental Rugs. New York: Charles Scribner's Sons, ca 1900, 278 pp.

Nahigian, Brothers. Oriental Rugs in the Home: A Monograph. Chicago: Nahigian Brothers, 1913, 82 pp.

Ripley, Mary Churchill. The Oriental Rug Book. New York: Frederick A. Stokes Company, 1904, 310 pp.

Postal Service

Secondary Sources


Amyot, Chantal and John Willis. Country Post: Rural Postal Service in Canada, 1880 to 1945. Mercury Series, Canadian Postal Museum, no. 1. Gatineau: Canadian Museum of Civilization, 2003, 210 pp.

Amyot, Chantal, Bianca Gendreau, and John Willis. Special Delivery: Canada's Postal Heritage. Fredericton: Gooselane Editions and the Canadian Postal Museum, 2000, 151 pp.

Carrier, Benoît. L. Le service postal canadien. MA thesis, Québec: Presses de l'Université Laval, 1953, 568 pp.

Kielbowicz, Richard B. "Universal Postal Service: A Policy History to 1971." Paper presented at the Annual Meeting of the National Council on Public History, Houston, 2003.

O'Reilly, Susan McLeod. On Track: The Railway Mail Service in Canada. Hull: Canadian Museum of Civilization, 1992, 151 pp.

Vice, George F. The Post Office and Early Development in Bowmanville. Bowanville: Bowmanville Museum, 1993.

Willis, John. "L'importance sociale du bureau de poste en milieu rural au Canada, 1880-1945." Social History 30, no. 59 (May 1997): 143-168.

Willis, John. "Selling God by Post in French Canada." In Revelations: Bi-Millenial Papers from the Canadian Museum of Civilization, edited by R. Klymasz and J. Willis, Mercury Series, CCFCS, no. 75. Hull: Canadian Museum of Civilization. 2001, pp. 258-285.

Willis, John. "L'ABC de la lettre. Le geste d'écrire." Cap-aux-Diamants, no. 50 (Summer 1997): 26-30.

Web Site

Canadian Museum of Civilization. "A Chronology of Canadian Postal History."

Retail and Department Stores

Secondary Sources


Benson, Susan Porter. "Palace of Consumption and Machine for Selling: The American Department Store, 1880-1940." Radical History Review 21 (Autumn 1979).

Benson, Susan Porter. Counter Cultures, Saleswomen, Managers, and Customers in American Department Stores, 1890-1940. Urbana: University of Illinois Press, 1986, 322 pp.

Bliss, Michael. Northern Enterprise: Five Centuries of Canadian Business. Toronto: McClelland and Stewart, 1987, 640 pp.

Brown, Milton-Peers. Operating Results of a Multi-Unit Department Store. Boston: Harvard University Press, 1961, 8 pp.

Comeau, Michelle. "Les grands magasins de la rue Sainte-Catherine à Montréal: Des lieux de modernisation, d'homogénisation et de différenciation des modes de consommation." Material History Review, no. 41 (Spring 1995): 58-68.

D'Arcy, Hande. "Saskatchewan Merchants in the Great Depression: Regionalism and the Crusade against Big Business." Saskatchewan History 63, no. 1 (Winter 1991): 21-33.

Ferry, John William. A History of the Department Store. New York: Macmillan, 1960, 387 pp.

Hess, Max Jr. Every Dollar Counts: The Story of the American Department Store. New York: Fairchild, 1952, 166 pp.

Jaumain, Serge and G. Crossick. Cathedrals of Consumption: The European Department Store, 1850-1939. Aldershot: Ashgate Publishing, 1999.

Johnston, J. W. The Department Store Buyer: A View from Inside the Parent Branch Complexes. Austin: University of Texas Press, 1969.

Joint Center for Urban Studies. The Future of the Downtown Department Store. Cambridge.: Harvard University Press, 1962, 205 pp.

Lancaster, Bill. The Department Store: A Social History. London: Leicester University Press, 1995, 212 pp.

Lessard, Michel, ed. "Les grands magasins: Un nouvel art de vivre." Cap-aux-Diamants (Special Issue), no. 40 (Winter 1995), 74 pp.

Mayfield, Frank. The Department Store Story. New York: Fairchild, 1949,
260 pp.

Miller, Michael B. The Bon Marché: Bourgeois Culture and the Department Store, 1869-1920. Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1981, 266 pp.

Monod, David. Store Wars: Shopkeepers and the Culture of Mass Marketing, 1890-1939. Toronto: University of Toronto Press, 1996, 438 pp.

Montreal Illustrated, 1894. Montréal: Consolidated Illustrating Company, 1894.

Newell, Brenda Kim. "From Cloth to Clothing: The Emergence of Department Stores in Late 19th Century Toronto." MA thesis (History), Peterborough: Trent University, 1984, 187 pp.

Pasdermadnian, Hrant. Le grand magasin: Son origine, son évolution, son avenir. Paris: Dunod, 1949, 166 pp.

Phillips, W. B. How Department Stores Are Carried On. [Toronto?: np, 1900], 140 pp.

Retail Merchants' Association of Canada, Inc. Canada. "Memorandum Submitted to the Royal Commission on Dominion-Provincial Relations by the Retail Merchants' Association of Canada, Inc., May 31, 1938."

Souvenir Number of the Montreal Daily Star Reviewing Various Financial and Commercial Interests Represented in the City of Montreal. Montréal: Henning and Camp, 1890, 60 pp.

Special Number of the Dominion Illustrated Devoted to Montreal, the Commercial Metropolis of Canada. Montréal: Sabiston, 1891, 200 pp.

Strasser, Susan. Satisfaction Guaranteed: The Making of the American Mass Market. New York: Pantheon Books, ca 1989, 339 pp.

Statistics Canada, Merchandizing and Services Division. Department Stores in Canada, 1923-1976. Ottawa: Queen's Printer, 1976.

Wetherell, D. G. and I. R. A. Kmet. Main Street and the Evolution of Small Town Alberta, 1880-1947. Edmonton: University of Alberta Press, 1995, 368 pp.

Whitefield, Edwin. Topographical Business Directory, Montreal, C.E. Montréal: E. Whitefield, 1864.

Wright, Cynthia Jane. "Feminine Trifles of Vast Importance." In Constructing Modern Canada: Readings in Post-Confederation History, edited by C. Gaffield. Toronto: Copp Clark Longman Ltd., 1994, pp. 288-310.

Wright, Lloyd and H. Kogan. Give the Lady What She Wants! The Story of Marshall Field and Company. Chicago: Rand McNally, 1952, 384 pp.


Wright, Cynthia Jane. "The Most Prominent Rendezvous of the Feminine Toronto: Eaton's College Street and the Organization of Shopping in Toronto, 1920-1950." Ottawa: Library and Archives Canada, 3 microfiches.

Web Site

Retail Merchants Association of Canada.

Women's Fashion

Secondary Sources


Audet, André. "Pouvoir, contrôle social et vie quotidienne à Saint-Hilarion, 1870-1925." In L'Église et le village au Québec, 1850-1930, edited by Serge Gagnon and René Hardy. Montréal: Léméac, 1979, pp. 37-70.

Barthes, Roland. "Encore le corps." Critique: Revue générale des publications françaises et étrangères, 38, no. 423-424: 645-654.

Bates, Christina. "Creative Ability and Business Sense: The Millinery Trade in Ontario." In Framing Our Past: Canadian Women's History in the Twentieth Century, edited by Sharon Anne Cook, Lorna R. McLean, and Kate O'Rourke. Montréal and Kingston: McGill-Queens, 2001, pp. 348-358.

Blutazzi, Gratietta. La mode: Art, histoire et société. Paris: Livre de Paris-Hachette, 1983, 280 pp.

Bologne, Jean-Claude. Histoire de la pudeur. Paris: Olivier Orban, 1986, 375 pp.

Boltanski, Luc. "Les usages sociaux du corps." Annales: Économies, sociétés, civilisations, 26, no. 1 (January-February 1971): 205-233.

Bonvoisin, Samra-Martine and Michèle Maignien. La presse féminine. Paris: PUF, 1986, 128 pp.

Borschberg, Edwin. "Le mythe du consommateur manipulé par la mode." In Le phénomène de la mode. Lausane: Librairie de l'Université de Lausanne, 1985, pp. 7-23.

Boucher, François. Histoire du costume en Occident de l'Antiquité à nos jours. Revised edition. Paris: Flammarion, 1983, 464 pp.

Bourdieu, Pierre. "Remarques provisoires sur la perception sociale du corps." Actes de la recherche en sciences sociales, no. 14 (1977): 51-54.

Brett, Katharine B. "Little Women, Little Men: 19th Century Children's Clothing in Canada." Rotunda 3, no. 1 (Winter 1970): 6-15.

Brody-Johansen, R. Body and Clothes: An Illustrated History of Costume. London: Faber and Faber Limited, 1968, 235 pp.

Bruchon-Schweitzer, Marilou. Une psychologie du corps. Paris: PUF, 1990, 324 pp.

Burgelin, Olivier. "L'explosion vestimentaire." Informations sociales, no. 6-7 (June-July 1972): 60-69.

Burgelin, Olivier. "Les outils de la toilette, ou le contrôle des apparences." Traverses, no. 7 (1977): 25-42.

Burgelin, Olivier. "Promenade cosmétique chez les anciens et les modernes." Traverses, no. 7 (1977): 123-127.

Cohen, Yolande. "L'histoire des femmes au Québec (1900-1950)." Recherches sociographiques, 21, no. 3 (September-December 1980): 339-345.

Collard, Eileen. The Cut and Construction of Women's Dress in the 1930s: An Outline of the Styles Worn from the Introduction of Vionnet's Famous Bias Cut in the Early '30s to Military Lines Seen Just Prior to the Outbreak of the Second World War. Burlington, Ontario: Eileen Collard, 1983, 95 pp.

Collard, Eileen. Decade of Change, ca 1909-1919: Women's Clothing in Canada Just Prior to, During and After the First World War. Burlington: Eileen Collard, 1981, 93 pp.

Collard, Eileen. Women's Dress in the 1920s: An Outline of Women's Clothing in Canada During the Roaring Twenties." Burlington: Eileen Collard, 1981,
48 pp.

Collard, Eileen. From Toddler to Teens: An Outline of Children's Clothing, ca 1780 to 1950. Burlington: Eileen Collard, 1973, 59 pp.

Collectif Clio. Quebec Women: A History, edited by Micheline Dumont. Toronto: Women's Press, 1987.

Delbourg-Delphis, Marylène. Le chic et le look: Histoire de la mode féminine et les mœurs de 1850 à nos jours. Paris: Hachette, 1981, 280 pp.

Desanti, Dominique. La femme au temps des Années Folles. Paris: Stock, Laurence Pernoud, 1984, 368 pp.

Deslandres, Yvonne and Florence Müller. Histoire de la mode au XXe siècle. Paris: Somogy, 1986, 404 pp.

Deslandres, Yvonne. Le costume: Image de l'homme. Collection "L'aventure humaine". Paris: Albin Michel, 1976, 298 pp.

Dostie, Michel. Les corps investis: Éléments pour une compréhension sociopolitique du corps. Montréal: St-Martin, 1988, 228 pp.

Dumas, Monique. "L'enfant ce petit adulte." Cap-aux-Diamants, 4, no. 2 (Summer 1988): 29-31.

Ewing, Elisabeth. History of Children's Costume. New York: Charles Scribner & Sons, 1977, 191 pp.

Featherston, Mike. "The Body in Consumer Culture." Theory, Culture and Society 1, no. 2 (September 1982): 18-33.

Ferguson, Marjorie. Forever Feminine: Women's Magazines and the Cult of Feminity. London: Exeter, Heinemann, 1982, 243 pp.

Fouquet, Catherine and Yvonne Knibiehler. La beauté pour quoi faire? Essai sur l'histoire de la beauté féminine. Paris: Temps Actuels, 1982, 180 pp.

Gagnon, Louise. L'apparition des modes enfantines au Québec. Québec: Institut québécois de recherche sur la culture, 1992, 230 pp.

Gambert, Wendy. The Female Economy: The Millinery and Dressmaking Trades, 1860-1930. Urbana: University of Illinois, 1997.

Gaudemar, Martine de. "Corps de femmes, puissance brisée, disciplinée." Politique aujourd'hui, no. 5-6 (May-June 1976): 43-62.

Iacovetta, Franca and Mariana Valverde. Gender Conflicts: New Essays in Women's History. Toronto: University of Toronto Press, 1992, 303 pp.

Juteau-Lee, Danielle. "La recherche relative aux femmes au Canada: Un état de la question et point de vue sociologique." In La femme, son corps et la religion: Approches pluridisciplinaires, edited by Élisabeth J. Lacelle. Montréal: Bellarmin, 1983, pp. 199-216.

Kidwell, Claudia and Margaret C. Christman. Suiting Everyone: The Democratization of Clothing in America. Washington: Smithsonian Institution, ca 1974, 203 pp.

Kroeber, A. L. and J. Richardson. "Three Centuries of Women's Dress Fashion: A Quantitative Analysis." Anthropological Records, 5, no. 2 (1947): 111-153.

Kybalova, Ludmila. Encyclopédie illustrée du costume et de la mode. ca 1970. Reprint, Paris: Gründ, 1984, 600 pp.

Langley-Moore, Doris. The Child in Fashion. London: B. T. Batsford, 1953, 102 pp.

Laver, James. Histoire de la mode et du costume. ca 1969. Reprint, Paris: Thames & Hudson, 1990, 287 pp.

Leloir, Maurice. Dictionnaire du costume et de ses accessoires, des armes et des étoffes des origines à nos jours. Paris: Gründ, 1951, 435 pp.

Lemieux, Denise. Les femmes au tournant du siècle, 1880-1940: Âges de la vie, maternité et quotidiens. Québec: Institut québécois de recherchesur la culture, 1989, 398 pp.

Lipovetsky, Gilles. L'empire de l'éphémère: La mode et son destin dans les sociétés modernes. Paris: Gallimard, 1987, 345 pp.

Marceau, Catherine. "Lorsque blancheur signifiait beauté." Historia, no. 458 (1985): 88-96.

Marchand, Suzanne. Rouge à lèvres et pantalon: Des pratiques esthétiques féminines controversées au Québec, 1920-1939. Montréal: Hurtubise, 1997, 162 pp.

McCutcheon, Johanne, "Clothing Children in English Canada, 1870-1930." PhD thesis, Ottawa: University of Ottawa, 2001.

Musée de la Civilisation. Souffrir pour être belle. Québec: Fides, 1988, 248 pp.

O'Connor, Eileen. "Regulating Healthy Bodies: Health, Medicine and Dress Reform in Victorian Canada." PhD thesis, Ottawa: University of Ottawa, 2002.

Perrot, Philippe. Les dessus et les dessous de la bourgeoisie: Une histoire du vêtement au XIXe siècle. Paris: Arthème Fayard, 1981, 344 pp.

Perrot, Philippe. Le travail des apparences ou les transformations du corps féminin, XVIIIe-XIXe siècles. Paris: Seuil, 1984, 280 pp.

Phan, Marie-Claude. "Les transformations de la beauté féminine." L'Histoire, no. 68 (June 1984): 48-57.

Rush, Anita. "Changing Women's Fashion and Its Social Context, 1870-1905." Material History Bulletin, no.14 (Spring 1982): 37-45.

Rymell, Heather. "Images of Women in the Magazines of the '30s and '40s." Les cahiers de la femme, 3, no. 2 (1981): 96-99.

Vincent, Rodolphe. Notre costume civil et religieux. Montréal: Association Coopérative, nd, 25 pp.

Vipond, Mary. "The Image of Women in Mass Circulation Magazines in the 1920s." In Neglected Majority: Essays in Canadian Women's History, edited by Susan Mann Trofimenkoff and Alison Prentice. Toronto: McCelland and Stewart, 1977, pp. 116-124.

Wilson, Elisabeth. Adorned in Dreams: Fashion and Modernity. Berkeley: University of California Press, 1987, 276 pp.

Willener, Alfred. "Les modes passent: Quelques aperçus sociologiques." In Le phénomène de la mode. Lausanne: Librairie de l'Université de Lausanne, 1985, pp. 45-61.

Worrell, Estelle Ansley. Children's Costume in America, 1609-1910. New York: Scribner, 1980, 216 pp.


Secondary Sources


Dauphin, Cécile. Prête-moi ta plume: Les manuels épistolaires au XIXe siècle. Paris: Éditions Kimé, 2000, 196 pp.

De Biasi, Pierre-Marc and Karine Duplizky. La saga du papier. Paris: Adam Biro, Arte Éditions, ca 1999, 255 pp.

Gendreau, Bianca. L'art d'écrire au Canada entre 1870 et 1940. Research report, Canadian Postal Museum, 1999.

Le Collen, Éric. Objets d'écriture. Paris: Flammarion, 1998, 175 pp.

Marshall, Jim. Miller's Pens & Writing Equipment: A Collector's Guide. London: Octopus Publishing Group, 1999, 64 pp.


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