Craft Unions
The Nine-Hours Movement
Provincial Workmen's Association
Crisis of the Craft Workers
International Unions


During the mid-nineteenth century, Canada experienced an industrial revolution that changed the lives of many working Canadians. Large new factories opened up, with strict rules and regulations - as well as harsh punishments for those who failed to follow them. New machines replaced some workers and became the masters of others; the work was often dangerous, demanding and badly paid.

The first workers to rebel against these conditions were those with the most influence: the skilled craft workers. Despite strong opposition from employers and governments, these workers formed organizations that promoted their interests while maintaining their independence and traditions.


Link to the Social Progress Gallery